Developmental and Neuropsychiatric Disorders of Childhood




Spina Bifida





Hydrocephalus occurs as a result of an imbalance between production and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), secondary to some other pathological event or structural brain anomaly. When CSF circulation is disrupted, fluid accumulates and pressure is exerted on the brain.

Hydrocephalus Association

Spina Bifida Association

Charity Video








Meningitis is characterized by inflammation of the meningeal membranes surrounding the brain. It can occur as a result of either bacterial or viral infection.  Viral meningitis may improve without treatment, but bacterial meningitis is serious, and delay of treatment increases the risk of permanent brain damage or potential death.

National Meningitis Association

What is Meningitis (Video)








Encephalitis occurs when the brain is invaded by a virus or another micro-organism resulting in acute inflammation of cerebral tissue with possible associated neuronal damage or potential death.

Encephalitis Society

Encephalitis (Video)






Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders

Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders




Hypothyroidism – Congenital hypothyroidism is a condition involving absent or insufficient production of thyroid hormone, secondary to partial or complete failure of thyroid gland development.

National Academy of Hypothyroidism

Phenylketonuria – Phenylketonuria is an autosomal recessive disorder of amino acid metabolism, in which plasma level of phenylalanine are increased due to abnormal metabolism.

National PKU Alliance

Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) – IDDM is a serious and life-long disorder of glucose metabolism.  For more information please visit:

Nationwide Children's Hospital


Childhood Epilepsies 

Childhood Epilepsies







Epilepsy is often a chronic condition characterized by a tendency towards recurrent seizures resulting from an imbalance between inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitter systems.  As groups of neurons fire excessively in synchronous oscillation, transient alterations in consciousness occur. While epilepsy is a relatively common neurological disorder, there are significant differences between adult and childhood seizure disorders.  In particular, there appears to be some evidence that epileptic activity may have profound influence on developing neurons.  Research continues to investigate these potential age-dependent affects.

Epilepsy Foundation
Intractable Childhood Epileps





Pervasive Developmental Disorders – Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)





ASD is a range of complex neurodevelopment disorders, characterized by social impairments, communication difficulties, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior (NIH).

National Autism Association
Autism Society
Organization for Autism Research

Autism Speaks






Dyslexia and Reading



Dyslexia or specific reading disability is a common learning disorder in children that is characterized by difficulty reading due to problems identifying speech sounds and learning how they relate to letters and words.

Learning Disabilities Association of America







Dyscalculia and Mathematics Disorder




Dyscalculia or specific mathematics disorder is characterized by impairment in the ability to learn and perform mathematics.  Dyscalculia is a dysfunction, which differs from acalculia – the lack of ability to perform or understand mathematics operations.

Learning Disabilities Association of America






Dysgraphia and Disorders of Written Expression




Dysgraphia is specific learning disorder that is generally characterized by difficulties forming letters, numbers, and words by hand, spelling correctly, and organizing and expressing thoughts on paper.

Learning Disabilities Association of America







Receptive and Expressive Language Disorders of Childhood




Receptive and expressive language disorders are associated with difficulties in a child’s ability to express him-or herself using spoken language, and with problems understanding what people are saying to him or her.

Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders






Auditory Processing Disorders (APD)




APD is characterized by deficits in auditory processing, ranging from deafness to more subtle disruptions of information processing associated with speech impairments, reading and writing disorders. 

Auditory Processing Disorder Foundation, Inc.
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association






Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)




ADHD is a chronic and impairing neurodevelopmental disorder associated with attention difficulty, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness.

Attention Deficit Order Association
Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD)






Pediatric Tic Disorders

Periatric Tic



Tic Disorders are characterized by rapid involuntary, repetitive motor movements, or vocalizations.

The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - (AACAP)



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